Tuesday, February 4, 2014

How to Make Bread Crumbs Stick to Jalapeño, Chicken, Pork, Fish, Prawn and Other Meat

 

What is Breading?

Breaded foods are everywhere. From chicken nuggets, patties and tenders, to jalapeno poppers, fried fish, shrimp and mozzarella sticks. American consumers just love breaded foods. Classic Italian dishes such as chicken, eggplant and veal parmigiana contain breading, as do many varieties of onion rings. But, what exactly is breading?

Breading (also known as crumbing) is a dry grain-derived food coating for a piece of food made from bread crumbs or a breading mixture with seasonings. The term breading essentially refers to the coating, traditionally formed by bread crumbs, which is applied in dry form to the outer surface of a food. A more general definition considered breading as thermally processed cereal-based foods.

Breading can also refer to the process of applying a bread-like coating to a food. Breading is well suited for frying as it lends itself to creating a crisp coating around the food. Breading mixtures can be made of breadcrumb, flour, cornmeal, and seasoning that the item to be breaded is dredged in before cooking. If the item to be breaded is too dry for the coating to stick, the item may first be moistened with buttermilk, raw egg, or other liquid.

Breading contrasts with batter, which is a grain-based liquid coating for food that produces a smoother and finer texture, but which can be softer overall.

The breading can be applied directly to the food substrate or, most frequently, to the surface of a previously battered food. The breaded food has a more complex structure as it also contains a layer of batter, which acts as an adhesive glue to fix the breading.

Most frequently, bread crumbs are used for breading, but breading can be simply composed of cereal flour, usually wheat, or they might contain also other ingredients such as gums, seasoning, colorants, and so on. The selection of the breading composition will depend on the required functionality (crispness, flavor, oil absorption, etc.).

Properties of Good Quality Bread Crumbs

In the production of bread crumbs, the breads that are used may come from regular bread production (whether fresh or returned stales) or may be baked according to special recipes, which may contain spice blends, increased shortening levels, special flavors, and other functional additives. Also the breads may be processed to differ in texture, either more compact or more expanded, so as to cover specific require­ments and to achieve the highest variability. Some bread crumbs are manufactured through an extrusion process, without using loaves of baked bread. The crumbs produced by extrusion differ in appearance, flavor, mouth feel, and consistency from those processed from loaves of bread. The bread crumbs contain larger and more porous particles that are crunchier in texture than the denser and more finely ground particles produced by extrusion.

The breading must have sufficient strength and integrity to adhere to the food. In general, the higher density and more compact-textured bread crumbs, the less the oil and moisture absorption.

The selection of breading particle size also depends on the substrate dimensions. Golden medium-to-coarse breadcrumbs are preferable to achieve golden color and uniform coating in fish/chicken fillets or burgers. Fine-to-medium breadcrumbs are preferable for chicken nuggets, fish sticks, oysters, shrimp, and scallops.


Types of Breading for Meat and Fish

According to the ingredients and mainly, to the production method employed, breading is classified into different types. The most common types are as follows:

1) Dry Breadcrumbs

Dry breadcrumbs are made from dry breads which have been baked or toasted to remove most remaining moisture, and may even have a sandy or even powdery texture. Bread crumbs are most easily produced by pulverizing slices of bread in a food processor, using a steel blade to make coarse crumbs, or a grating blade to make fine crumbs. A grater or similar tool will also do.

2) Flour Breaders

It consists of wheat flour, although it might contain other flours, starches, gums, colorants, and seasonings. This type of breading is the simplest and creates a home-style appearance.

3) Cracker Meal Type

This type of breading is formed using a cracker-type formulation. The ingredients are mixed with water to form a dough that is passed through a series of paired rollers forming a sheet approximately 1 inch thick. The dough sheet is baked out completely or baked to higher moisture, then requiring a secondary drying after grind­ing. The final moisture content of the breading is approximately 8 percent. This moisture level ensures a long time stability of the breading and contributes to the absorptive capacity. The crumbs obtained may be sieved for size.

Different from cracker baking, the manufacture of cracker meal-type breading does not require long fermentation times.

Cracker meal-type breading provides a hard and crunchy texture. However, texture modifications can be obtained by changes in the formulation. This type of breading is widely used on fish products.

4) American Bread Crumbs

This type refers to bread crumbs obtained from baked loaves of yeast-raised bread. In this method, the dough mixing operation is followed by a fermentation time. The dough is divided into portions that are proofed and baked as in the production of sandwich bread. The loaves are dried to the required moisture, then ground and sieved into fine, medium, and coarse sizes.

This type of breading is more porous and provides a less tough, crispier texture than cracker meal-type breading. American bread crumbs also tend to darken more quickly.

5) Fresh Bread Crumbs

The breads used to make soft or fresh bread crumbs are not quite as dry, so the crumbs are larger and produce a softer coating, crust, or stuffing. The crumb of bread crumb is also a term that refers to the texture of the soft, inner part of a bread loaf, as distinguished from the crust, or "skin".

6) Japanese or Oriental-Style Bread Crumbs

This type is made by cooking traditional yeast bread dough using microwaves or electrical resistance, instead of oven-baking. The bread is cooked in less than one-half the time taken for conventional oven baking. The result is a crust-free, low-density loaf. The breading obtained is of low density, very porous material.

What is Panko Bread Crumbs?

The Japanese first learned to make bread from the Europeans, and panko is derived from the Portuguese word for "bread", pão, and -ko, a Japanese suffix indicating "flour", "crumb", or "powder" (as in komeko, "rice powder", sobako, "buckwheat flour", and komugiko, "wheat flour").

Panko is a variety of flaky bread crumb used in Japanese cuisine as a crunchy coating for fried foods, such as tonkatsu. Panko is made from bread baked by passing an electric current through the dough, yielding bread without crusts. These bread crumbs are larger than regular bread crumbs, with a coarse texture. The size and texture of Panko bread crumbs allows them to cling better to food surfaces. They also hold-in moisture better than regular bread crumbs, eliminating sogginess. Panko bread crumbs are known for producing a light, flaky crust, that maintains a high-level of delicate crunchiness. It has a crisper, airier texture than most types of breading found in Western cuisine and resists absorbing oil or grease when fried, resulting in a lighter coating.

Outside Japan, its use is becoming more popular in both Asian and non-Asian dishes: It is often used on fish and seafood and is often available in Asian markets, specialty stores, and, increasingly, in many large supermarkets and online stores. Purchase the #1 bestselling Panko brand at Amazon.com. Use this link... Kikkoman Panko and get FREE shipping.

Panko is produced worldwide, particularly in Asian countries, including Japan, Korea, Thailand, China, and Vietnam. In February 2012, the US fast-food chain Wendy's introduced a cod fillet sandwich that they advertised as having a panko breading.

Watch Video: Panko Bread Crumbs: The Secrets Revealed




7) Crispbreads using Extrusion Cooking

This type of breading is manufactured through an extrusion process, without using loaves of baked bread. A cooker−extruder system is employed. The flour is mixed under highly turbulent conditions in the presence of steam to a moisture content of approximately 18 percent. The steamed flour is then directly fed into the extruder. The particles obtained by this system are denser and more finely ground than the ones of American bread crumbs.

Modernization in Breaded Food

Due to the increased health concern of consumers, oil absorption reduction continues to be an important future issue in breaded food. In this regard, an important necessity is to reduce the fat absorption during frying without scarifying crispness. Oil absorption mainly occurs due to moisture replacement, and so oil reduction is typically associated with a reduction of crispness sensation. The number of scientific research that investigate the relationship among oil reduction and crispness is scarce so further studies will be required in this field.

Research in ways of creating new textures which provide different crispness sensations as well as new colors and flavors will always be necessary as the market is always demanding food products with innovative properties. New crumb sizes and geometries, enriched colors, combination of flavors and seasonings, new sophisticated ingredients are some of the innovation possibilities.

Another future research need is the quality improvement of breaded food finally cooked by micro­wave. In comparison with frying, microwave cooking confers a not pleasant soft and soggy texture, because in this type of heating water is conducted from the inside to the outside. New research on ingredients or mixtures of ingredients that avoid water migration from the coated food to the outer breaded crust will help in improving the quality of microwave-breaded food. Also more knowledge about ingredients that may confer crispness on microwave heating may be convenient.

Related to the health issue also stands the increase in the fiber content of the breading. The employ of whole-grain ingredients and the incorporation of fibers from a variety of sources will increase the nutritional properties of the breading. The study of the effect of fibers in fat absorption is another future concern. The incorporation of a retrogradated resistant starch (type 3 resistant starch) in a batter formula increased the fiber content and reduced fat absorption during frying.


Have you tried frying? Do you know the Properties of Fats and Oils in Cooking that You Should Know


How to Make Breading Stick to Chicken

Why can't you get the bread crumbs stick to the chicken meat? Every time you try to fry it in a pan, the breading starts falling off in huge pieces. You have tried using various dredge recipes you found online and in cook books, but no matter what changes you make, it still happens.

The breadcrumbs did not stick to the meat because it's too wet under the coating.  The moisture underneath the breading turns to steam and the steam pushes the breading off the meat.

There are a lot of different ways to deal with this -- the most common are flouring the food before dipping in liquid and finally breading, and allowing the breaded food to rest and stabilize awhile before frying.  Breading pork chops involves striking the right ratio of wet to dry ingredients. However, there are more ways than one to skin this cat, and some of them are specific to what you're breading and how you're trying to bread it.

Materials Needed:

1 large fresh egg
3 shallow bowls or plastic food bag
1/4 cup milk or water
Whisk or a fork
1 cup breadcrumbs or Panko
2 tsp. fresh or dried herbs
3/4 cup flour
1 tsp. rock salt
½ tsp. ground black pepper
Paper towels


Directions:

1) As a general rule, chicken pieces should be thoroughly wiped dry with a paper towel so the coatings adhere, especially if the chicken has been marinated. Next, a thin coating of flour can help the breading stick better.

2) You need to salt the meat before anything happens, this breaks down the myosin and makes the meat sticky in addition to being tasty.

3) Beat 1 large fresh egg into a shallow bowl. Add 1/4 cup of milk. Whisk the two ingredients together.

4) Blend together 1 cup of bread crumbs or Kikkoman Panko breadcrumbs with 2 tsp. of minced fresh or dried herbs in another shallow bowl. Use rosemary, oregano and basil for an Italian flavor, chili powder and cilantro for a Southwestern taste or curry and saffron for Indian seasonings.

You can experiment with using both fresh and dried herbs, but if you’re frying the meat instead of baking it, be cautious with the amount of fresh herbs you use because they can burn quickly and leave a bitter taste to the meat.

5) Place 3/4 cup of flour into a third shallow bowl. Add 1/2 tsp. of ground black pepper. Mix together the flour and herb until combined.

6) Pat chicken meat cuts dry with paper towels. Dredge one piece at a time into the flour mixture. To avoid a pasty taste and lumpy texture, shake off the excess flour before moving onto the next step in the process.

7) Dip the floured chicken into the egg mixture. Roll the chicken meat in the seasoned breadcrumbs until thoroughly coated. The breading will cover approximately 1 1/2 pounds of chicken meat. Cook according to your recipe's directions.

8) When breading fresh chicken, because of food-safety and sanitary concerns, it is imperative that the left-over breading ingredients in the bowl not be re-used.


Watch Video: How To Bread Meat and Keep it from Falling off of Your Fried Foods


Quick Cooking Tips:

a) For a solid crust, double coat the meat cuts by dipping them into the flour and egg twice before coating in breadcrumbs.

b) Strive for a light but total covering of each ingredient. Too much egg, for instance, can turn breadcrumbs mushy. Too thick a layer of breadcrumbs will soak up too much oil during frying.

c) Only a complete coating of breading will adhere to the meat during cooking, locking in the flavor of the pork chops and forming a crisp crust. Be sure to fully cover the meat adequately with each ingredient.

d) To avoid spreading bacteria, wash your hands and all affected surface areas and utensils after handling eggs and raw meat.


Watch Video: How to Make Oven-Fried Panko Chicken



References:


Chalupa WF, Sanderson GR. 1994. Process for preparing low-fat fried food. U.S. Patent No. 5,372,829. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

Culinary Institute of America (CIA). 2011. The Professional Chef, 9 edition. Wiley. ISBN-10: 0470421355

Dyson DV. 1983. Breadings. In: Suderman DR, Cunningham FE, editors. Batter and Breading. Westport, CT: Avi Publishing company, Inc.

Fiszman SM. 2008. Quality of battered or breaded products. In: Sahin S, Sumnu G, editors. Advances in Deep Fat Frying of Foods. Boca Ratón, FL: CRC Press.

Fiszman SM, Salvador A. 2010. Battering and breading: Frying and freezing. In: Guerrero-Legarreta I, Hui YH, editors. Handbook of Poultry Science and Technology, Vol. 2: Secondary Processing. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

Gisslen, Wayne. 2010. Professional Cooking, 7th Edition. John Wiley and Sons. ISBN-10: 0470197528

Gerrish T, Higgins C, Kresl K. 1997. Method of making battered and/breaded food compositions using calcium pectins. U.S. Patent No. 5,601,861. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

Harper JM. 1981. Starch-based extruded foods. In: Harper JM, editor. Extrusion of Foods, Vol. 2 Cleveland, OH: CRC Press.

Jackel SS. 1993. Bread crumbs, croutons, breadings, stuffings, and textural analysis. Cereal Foods World. 38(9):704–5.

Johnson RT, Hutchinson J. 1983. Batter and breading processing equipment. In: Suderman DR, Cunningham FE, editors. Batter and Breading, Vol. 1, Westport, CT: Avi Publishing Company.

Lenchin JM, Bell H. 1985. National Starch and Chemical Corporation, assignee. Process for coating foodstuff with batter containing high amylose flour for microwave cooking. US Patent 4,529,607.

Marshall, Jo. 2010. COOKCABULARY: Panko is a crumby ingredient - Fall River, MA. The Herald News.

Meyers MA, Conklin JR. 1990. Method of inhibiting oil adsorption in coated fried foods using hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose. U.S. Patent No. 4,900,573. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

Panko Bread Crumbs: The Secrets Revealed. YouTube http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bCNU9TrbiRk

Scott RA. 1987. Review of crumb coatings. In: Fuller DB, Parry RT, editors. Savoury Coating, Vol. 1. London: Elsevier Applied Science.

Suderman DR, Cunningham FE. 1983. Batter and Breading Technology. New York: Avi Publishing Company.

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