Saturday, March 17, 2018

Stephen Hawking is the Catalyst for ‘Culinary Physics’ Style of Cooking

 

Stephen-Hawking-Catalyst-Culinary-Physics-Style-of-Cooking
Barack Obama talks with Stephen Hawking in the White House before a ceremony presenting him with the Presidential Medal of Freedom. 


Stephen Hawking mourned by José Andrés as the catalyst for ‘Culinary Physics’. 

The physicist's work was an inspiration for Jose Andrés science-based cooking called Culinary Physics.

Culinary Physics is a field of food science that seeks to investigate the physical and chemical transformations of ingredients that occur in cooking process. Its program includes three areas, as cooking was recognized to have three components, which are social, artistic and technical

Culinary physics is a modern style of cooking, and takes advantage of many technical innovations from the scientific disciplines like Physics, Chemistry, Microbiology and other related fields.

Andrés credited the physicist as the inspiration for the science-based cooking practiced by him and chefs like Ferran Adria, Grant Achatz, and Wylie Dufresne.

Modernist Cuisine, one of the most successful and influential cookbooks of the twenty-first century, was written by Hawking’s former student Nathan Myhrvold.


Modernist Cuisine: The Art and Science of Cooking is an encyclopedic treatment of cooking process. Its six volumes of 2,438 pages explore the history of cuisine and explain the science of cooking in a way that’s accessible to both professional chefs and home cooks alike. Produced by a team of scientists, professional chefs, editors, and writers, the reference volumes explore research spanning the field of culinary science and other pertinent related sciences, with careful attention to practicality and applicability in the kitchen.


Source: The Daily Meal

Friday, March 16, 2018

Best Dried Herbs: How to Use Herbs in Cooking?

 

How-to-Use-Dried-Herbs-in-Cooking-culinary-physics

Using Fresh Herbs vs. Dried

Fresh is often best, both in terms of flavor and nutritional value. But it’s not the only option. Many long-cooked dishes or recipes call specifically for pungent dried herbs like oregano, rosemary, sage, and thyme. 

In some recipes like stew, fresh herbs simply can’t withstand the heat and lengthy cook times, and the dried herbs offer more robust flavors that permeate through the entire dish. 

Many fresh herbs lose their flavor when dried. But there are numerous herbs that hold up well like bay leaves, oregano, rosemary, savory, sage, and thyme. 

These herbs have thicker, sturdier leaves and stems than their delicate, tender, soft-leaf counterparts like parsley and basil. During the drying process, the full-bodied flavors in these herbs become concentrated and more intense, so you’ll get a stronger punch with smaller amounts than you’d get with fresh herbs. 

When dried, many of herbs’ aromatic molecules escape as flavor-containing oils evaporate. Also, each herb has a unique combination of aromatic substances, which evaporate at different rates, so a dried herb can have quite a different taste

Hardy or tough herbs (e.g. rosemary, thyme, sage, oregano, bay) from warm climates stand up to drying better than delicate herbs, as their tough leaves and stems have evolved to lock in moisture when exposed to the harsh midday sun or high temperature. 

Trapped in the leaf, their flavor molecules are better retained when dried. The dried herb is then able to deliver a strong, near complete, flavor profile. 


dried-herbs-how-to-use-herbs-in-cooking
Apart from bay leaves, herbs’ aromatic substances easily disappear when the leaf is dried.


RELATED POST: How to Use Herbs in Cooking Delicious Food?


When to Use Dried Herbs Instead of Fresh

Confused whether to use fresh herbs or dried? How do you use dried herbs in cooking? How you can get the best from dried herbs? 

Even the herbs most suited to drying suffer from flavor loss over time. As with fresh herbs, learn how to use dried herbs to maximize its flavor. Please follow the quick and easy tips below:

1) Dried herbs come in useful when you’re short on fresh ingredients and need a substitute in a pinch. And they do the trick using much smaller quantities. In fact, dried herbs are especially useful in the winter months, when warm-weather herbs are no longer in season and at their most expensive price.

2) Grind herbs before using. Grinding dried herbs in a traditional mortar and pestle before use aids in the release flavorful oils.

Remember, however, that when a fully integrated flavor is desired, reliable electric mills should be used. I’ve also found that a grinding of mixed spices can perfectly mix the flavors together better, even if the components were preground.

3) When swapping dried herbs in place of fresh herbs, use only one-third the amount called for in the recipe. Hence, if the recipe says 1 tablespoon fresh thyme leaves, use 1 teaspoon dried thyme (3 teaspoons equals 1 tablespoon). 

On the other hand, if using fresh herbs instead of dried, multiply the amount by three: 1 tablespoon dried oregano calls for a substitution of 3 tablespoons fresh.

4) Use the right amount appropriate for recipe. 

5) How can you bring out the flavor in dried herbs? Cook dried herbs in oil. You can release dried herbs’ fat friendly flavor molecules by cooking them in your favorite oil.

6) Store herbs carefully. Direct light and heat degrade herb’s flavor. Store dried herbs in an airtight container in a cool and dark place.

7) You can make your own. For the most savory dried herbs, you can easily dry fresh herbs at home in the oven.

8) In the end, though, choosing between fresh and dried herbs is mostly a matter of how often you’ll use them. Do you love cooking Italian food or French cuisine? Choose for fresh basil, parsley, and oregano, since you’ll get great use out of those herbs in your kitchen.

If you only rarely use rosemary or dill, settle for the dried stuff: You’ll have some on hand if you need it, but it won’t be a costly (and wasteful) kitchen staple. 


RELATED POST: List of Cooking Spices with Pictures


Fresh to Dry Herb Conversion Calculator

How to use dried herbs? Dried herbs are generally more potent and concentrated than fresh herbs that’s why you'll need fewer amounts.

If a recipe calls for fresh herbs, but you only have dried herbs on hand (or you don't want to spring for fresh), just follow the fresh to dry herb conversion below.


Type of Herb
Amount of Fresh Herb
Equivalent Quantity of Dried Herb



Cilantro
3 tsp fresh cilantro
1 tsp dried cilantro
Oregano
1 Tbsp fresh oregano
1 tsp dried oregano
Dill
3 tsp fresh dill
1 tsp dried dill
Rosemary
1 Tbsp fresh rosemary (or 1 small/medium sprig)
1 tsp dried rosemary
Basil
2 tsp finely chopped basil (about 5 leaves)
1 tsp dried basil
Bay leaves
1 fresh leaf
2 dried leaves
Chervil
3 tsp fresh cilantro
1 tsp dried cilantro
Chives
1 Tbsp finely chopped fresh chives
1 tsp freeze-dried chives
Garlic
1 clove
1/2 tsp garlic powder
Gingerroot
1 tsp grated fresh ginger
1/4 tsp dry ground ginger
Marjoram
3 tsp fresh marjoram
1 tsp dried marjoram
Onions
1 medium onion
1 tsp onion powder
Parsley
2 tsp finely chopped parsley (or 3 sprigs)
1 tsp dried parsley
Sage
7 leaves (or 2 tsp minced fresh sage)
1 tsp dried sage
Tarragon
3 tsp fresh tarragon
1 tsp dried tarragon
Thyme
1 Tbsp fresh thyme (or 6 sprigs)
3/4 tsp ground thyme


RELATED RECIPE AND HELPFUL TIPS: 

1) How to Make Saffron Rice Pudding- Easy Saffron Recipes

2) How to Use Saffron? - 15 Useful Hints and Tips

3) Cilantro Taste: Why Coriander (Cilantro) Tastes Like Metal or Soap to Some People?



REFERENCES:

Dr. Stuart Farrimond. 2017. The Science of Cooking: Every Question Answered to Perfect Your Cooking. DK. ISBN-13: 978-1465463692

Leslie Bilderback, Certified Master Chef. 2007. The Complete Idiots Guide to Spices and Herbs. Alpha Books. ISBN-10: 1592576745

Nicolette Goff. 2013. Growing Culinary Herbs: Discover How to Grow Your Own Fresh Herbs and Use them to Create Delicious Dishes. Vibrant Vision Press. ASIN: B00CZE546O

Padma Lakshmi. 2016. The Encyclopedia of Spices and Herbs: An Essential Guide to the Flavors of the World. Ecco. ISBN-13: 978-0062375230

Tony Hill. 2005. The Spice Lover's Guide to Herbs and Spices. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. ISBN-10: 0764597396

Friday, March 9, 2018

11 Yummy and Easy Pudding Recipes Without Oven (Video Recipes)

 

You don’t have an oven? No problem! We've got you the easiest pudding recipes to make a delicious dessert quickly. These no-bake dessert recipes guarantee a satisfying, decadent dessert without the hassles of using an oven.

Let's face it (non-bakers—you can do this!). For most of us, creating desserts from scratch is intimidating enough without all the looming equipment and fussy baking temperatures. Watch the videos now!


Pudding-Recipes-Without-Oven



11) Caramel Bread Pudding Recipe (Without Oven) - Steamed Caramel Bread Pudding



Easy&Tasty Caramel Bread Pudding without Oven||Steamed Caramel Bread Pudding


Related Post: Steam Cooking Times: How Long to Steam Vegetables, Fish, Chicken, Lobster and Other Savory Foods


10) NO OVEN NO EGG Easy milk pudding..!!!!||milk pudding recipe. !!| milk pudding in Minutes. !!!!!!



Easy milk pudding
milk pudding at home
homemade milk pudding


9) How To Make Caramel Egg Pudding Without Oven - Easy Custard Flan Recipe At Home In Kitchen



How To Make Caramel Egg Pudding Without Oven, Easy Custard Flan Recipe At Home In Kitchen

Pudding, Dim Pudding, Caramel Pudding, Egg Pudding, Custard Pudding, Steamed Pudding, Simple Pudding, Flan, Easy Dessert, Baked flan, Flan, Purin you can call any one of these.

Egg Pudding or Caramel Pudding is a classic dessert made of simple ingredients which are milk, sugar & egg. It’s so delicious & tasty. And it’s full of proteins & calcium.

Here I made simple egg Pudding without oven, which is so easy. From this video you can make this Pudding step by step in a very short time.

Procedure:

1. Firstly, in one bowl, pour with milk and boil this. In a medium flame turn it at least half, because milk has to be thick. It will take time 40-45 minute.

2. Then mix sugar to the milk and stir repeatedly. Also mix cinnamon, cardamom & one pinch of salt. Beat together until sugar dissolves.

3. Cool this mixture and strain in one pot.

4. On the other side, Mix 4 egg properly and add this to the milk. Stir this.

5. Take a pot, which is perfect for your steamer. Make caramel with 2 tbsp sugar and 2 tbsp water in low flame. Simmer this until the mixture is browned. It will take 5 minute.

6. Then remove from heat and rotate the pot immediately so that caramel can spread gradually.

7. Then pour the pot with milk sugar, egg mixture and flip with a cover.

8. Now put this pot in one sauce pan with water carefully. Mention that, water should not be max to the half portion of the mixture pot. Then also cover the sauce pan. Then steam cook for 30 minute in a medium flame.

9. 30 minutes later, Put off the pot from water and check with a toothpick, if my pudding is fully boiled.

10. After that, turn the pudding to get cool.

11. Invert this into a plate and cut into my desired shapes.

12. Then transfer to refrigerator or you can serve this as warm also.

Ingredients:

1. 1 kg milk

2. 1 pinch of salt

3. One & half cup sugar

4. 4 egg

5. Halt tsp Cardamom & Cinnamon

For Caramel:

1. 2 tbsp sugar

2. 2 tbsp water


8) Home Made Easy Banana Pudding Recipes Without Oven





7) Pudding Recipes | How To make Pudding At Home In Bangla (?????) | Cooking Tutorial



In this video I am shown "Pudding Recipes “by watch this video you learn "How To make Pudding At Home" In Bangla. So Try this Cooking Tutorial.

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6) Custard Pudding~! No oven! No gelatin! 3 Ingredients! : Honeykki



Today I made simple custard pudding. It’s very smooth, sweet and delicious! So, try it!

I used 3 egg yolks for softer pudding that melts in my mouth, but if you want a sturdier pudding that keeps form after flipping, use 4 egg yolks.

* Ingredients

(100 ml pudding mold * 4ea)

syrup: 60g sugar, 50ml water

pudding: 3 large egg yolk, 70g sugar, 300ml milk, 1Tbs vanilla extract

* Recipe

1. Place the sugar and water in a saucepan and simmer until light brown. It can taste burnt if overcooked. So, turn off immediately once the color shows.

2. Pour the syrup into a ramekin (pudding mold) and cool completely. The pudding slides out better if you coat the ramekins with butter, but I got little bubbles :(

3. Heat the milk with sugar using gas stove or microwave.

4. In a bowl, mix the eggs and sugar, add (3) milk mixture and mix well.

5. Strain the (4) egg milk mixture, divide and pour into ramekins (pudding mold).

6. Line the bottom of a deep pan with paper towel, and place the ramekins. (The paper towel prevents the ramekins from rattling and breaking in boiling water.)

7. Pour in hot water and simmer for 15~20min. You can use an oven.

8. Refrigerate the pudding for at least 1 hour. Serve on a plate.


5) How to make Simple flan recipe (without oven)



Today I’ll make an easy flan recipe. Hope you enjoy it ;)

Ingredients list:-

2 eggs
10 tbs milk powder
2 cups water
Vanilla extract
3 tbs sugar
Lemon or orange zest (optional)

For caramel:

- 2 tbs sugar and 2 tbs water

Cook for 40 minutes on low flame.

Insert a toothpick in the middle, the toothpick should come out clean.


4) Pudding without oven in easy steps





3) Brazilian FLAN [Pudding] | Pudding Recipes without Oven | Best Flan Recipe by COOK HOUSE



Brazilian FLAN [Pudding] | Pudding Recipes without Oven | Best Flan Recipe by COOK HOUSE

Brazilian flan is very delicious what you are searching. See this recipe and try at your home. Hope you will like it. This pudding recipe you can make it without oven.


2) How to make pudding without an oven




1) How to Make Saffron Rice Pudding- Easy Saffron Recipes

Thursday, March 8, 2018

How to Make Saffron Rice Pudding- Easy Saffron Recipes

 

Some basic information before Cooking with Saffron:

SAFFRON BOTANICAL NAME: Crocus sativus
FORMS: threads and ground

The priciest spice in the world, saffron comes from a species of crocus believed to be native to Asia Minor and Greece. Its history extends back at least to the tenth century BC. It is even mentioned in the Old Testament. 

It is expensive because it is labor intensive to produce saffron threads. It takes more than one hundred thousand flowers to produce one pound of saffron. Each flower has only three stigmas, and these are attached at the bottom of the flower with a pale thread that is called a style.

How-to-Make-Saffron-Rice-Pudding

Harvesting saffron is a demanding, painstaking process. The harvest is in the fall, and the flowers are picked early in the morning, to avoid the heat of the sun. Then the stigmas are removed by hand, traditionally by all the women, young and old, of the town. Still attached to the style, the stigmas are then dried, often still over charcoal or in the sun, the traditional methods.


How to Buy Saffron the Smart Way and at the Right Price?

Most grades of saffron will have some of the styles attached; very high-quality versions have had the styles removed. Because of the cost (the price of saffron can be close to half of that of gold by weight), both whole threads and ground saffron have been known to be adulterated—safflower stigmas, the most likely culprit, look somewhat similar but have none of the flavor of the real thing

Dried saffron stigmas are red or red-orange, and the styles are lighter; the deeper the color of the threads, the better

Easy-Saffron-Recipes

Ground saffron is also marketed, but it is preferable to buy the whole threads and pulverize them at home, both for their fresher flavor and because of the possibility of the preground version being adulterated


How Does Saffron Taste Like?

Saffron has a very subtle flavor and aroma — some people say it's floral, some say it's like honey, and some would just say pungent. 

Raw saffron has a distinctive musky, woody fragrance and a pungent, bitter taste.

The flavor can be hard to nail down and described. If you're going for authenticity in dishes like saffron rice pudding, paella and bouillabaisse, you've got to have saffron.


Vegan Saffron Rice Pudding Recipe
(rice pudding with pistachios raisins and saffron)

For those of you are who are lactose intolerant or vegan, this is a delicious dessert just for you! This creamy pudding is made even more mouthwatering when infused with a saffron flavor.

Vegan-Saffron-Rice-Pudding-Recipe

This is an almost jelly-like rice pudding with a wonderful delicate flavor, made with water, not milk. It is called zerde in Turkey and sholezard Persian saffron rice pudding in Iran.

The history of this stunning traditional dessert goes back to several hundred years ago, when it was served only on special occasions like the Persian New Year.


Serves 6

INGREDIENTS:

1.5 liters (2-1/2 pints) water

125g (4-1/4 oz) short-grain round rice or basmati rice

200g (7oz) sugar

1/4 teaspoon saffron threads or a good quality powdered saffron

1 tablespoon corn flour

3 tablespoons rose water

2 tablespoons raisins

2 tablespoons slivered almonds

2 tablespoons slivered or chopped pistachios


COOKING DIRECTIONS:

1) Boil the rice in the water for about 30 minutes, and then add the sugar.

2) Mix the saffron with 1 tablespoon of boiling water and stir it in. 

The threads are usually soaked in warm water or another liquid to soften them and bring out the color and then added, with the liquid, to the pot; ground saffron can be added directly to a dish as it cooks. 

3) Dissolve the corn flour in 3–4 tablespoons of cold water and pour into the pan, stirring vigorously. Continue to stir for a few minutes, until the liquid part thickens, then simmer on a low heat for 30 minutes. 

4) Add the rose water and stir in the raisins, pistachios and almonds.

5) Let it cool a little, and then pour into a glass serving bowl or a big mug.


Saffron Rice Pudding Recipe Variation:

1) You can add 1 teaspoon of cardamom seeds to the rice at the beginning.

2) You can garnish with cinnamon if you want.



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How to Use Saffron? - 15 Useful Hints and Tips

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How to Make Homemade Smoked Tomato Ketchup- Healthy Homemade Ketchup

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How to Use Herbs in Cooking Delicious Food?



REFERENCES:

Claudia Roden. 2000. Tamarind and Saffron: Favourite Recipes From The Middle East (Penguin Cookery Library), International Edition. Penguin UK. ISBN-10: 0140466940

M Kafi (Editor), A. Koocheki (Editor), M.H. Rashed (Editor). 2006. Saffron (Crocus sativus): Production and Processing, 1st Edition. CRC Press. ISBN-10: 157808427X

Moshe Negbi (Editor). 1999. Saffron: Crocus sativus L. (Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Industrial Profiles), 1st Edition. CRC Press. ISBN-10: 9057023946

Padma Lakshmi. 2016. The Encyclopedia of Spices and Herbs: An Essential Guide to the Flavors of the World. Ecco. ISBN-13: 978-0062375230

Tuesday, March 6, 2018

How to Use Saffron? - 15 Useful Hints and Tips

 

Saffron is the dried stigmas of the crocus flower, and it takes more than one hundred thousand flowers to produce one pound of saffron by hand. It is an extremely labor-intensive crop. That's why saffron is the world's most expensive spice, and also why so there are so many fakes on the market. 

Each flower has only three stigmas, and these are attached at the bottom of the flower with a pale thread that is called a style.

how-to-use-saffron-in-cooking


15) Which country has the best saffron?

Saffron has been cultivated in India for centuries, and India is one of the major producers today, along with Spain and Iran.

Spain is also a major producer, but some people accused the country of re-branding Iranian produce. Saffron pickers in Masshad, Iran, the hub of the global industry. 

The best Spanish saffron, or azafrán, comes from La Mancha, and some believe this is the best in the world, but saffron from Kashmir in India is also very good, as is some of the saffron from Iran.


14) How much saffron should you use?

Cooking with saffron. From what I've experienced, only a pinch to 1/2 teaspoon of saffron is necessary for most recipes (and too much can add a bitter taste, so it should always be used sparingly). 


13) Can you use saffron powder instead of threads?

You can add saffron powder directly to a dish without toasting or pre-soaking. 

Use half the amount of powdered saffron if your recipe calls for saffron threads. While powdered saffron provides the rich gold color associated with paella and other dishes, there will not be any visible threads in your finished dish.


12) How many teaspoons is 1 gram of saffron?

cooking-with-saffron

Saffron contains 450-500 saffron stigmas to the gram. The stigmas are also called threads, strings, pieces or strands. 

1 gram equals 2 tsp. whole, 1 teaspoon crumbled or 1/2 teaspoon powdered.


Related Post: How to Use Herbs in Cooking Delicious Food?


11) Can you eat raw saffron?

This is not a spice one would eat raw. Raw saffron does not have a pleasant taste. One teaspoon of saffron thread (about 0.5 grams) will dissolve in a few tablespoons of hot water in about 30 minutes.

Raw saffron has a distinctive musky, woody fragrance and a pungent, bitter taste.


10) How long does Saffron last for? What is the shelf life of saffron?

Like any spice, saffron is best when fresh and loses its potency over time.

As long as it's kept in an airtight container that doesn't allow any light in, in an environment that has a relatively consistent temperature, it will last indefinitely. I bought a bottle of saffron (about 20 dollars worth) about 5 years ago and it's still fresh and potent (have about a 1/3 of it left).


9) What foods go well with saffron?

Saffron uses in cooking. Saffron’s color is water-soluble, and it adds a beautiful yellow tone as well as its flavor to a wide variety of dishes. Spain’s paella is one of the most notable of these, along with Italy’s risotto alla Milanese and France’s bouillabaisse, the traditional seafood stew; it also flavors zarzuela, the Spanish version of that classic.

Saffron also pairs well with flavors such as apples, almonds, cardamom, honey, poultry (particularly heritage chickens and squab), bone marrow, milk or cream (try it in ice cream!), cinnamon, lamb, seafood, garlic, white wine, vinegar, rose water, and citrus fruits.

In England, the spice was cultivated in Essex in the Middle Ages, and it is still used in Britain to make traditional saffron cakes. Chartreuse and some other liqueurs are flavored with saffron. It is also used in a traditional Persian stew called koresh and a rice dish called polow.

In India, saffron seasons rice and chicken, as well as rich Moghul-style preparations and it flavors sweet custards and yogurt drinks or desserts. 

Related Post: What's NEW in Oprah Winfrey's Favorite Indian Food Recipe?


8) Where is saffron grown in the world?

Saffron crocus cultivation has long centered on a broad belt of Eurasia bounded by the Mediterranean Sea in the southwest to India and China in the northeast. The major producers of antiquity—Iran, Spain, India, and Greece—continue to dominate the world trade.


7) Is there a difference between saffron and Spanish saffron?

Less-expensive saffron powder is often made from sub-par saffron or old saffron. The best Spanish saffron, or azafrán, comes from La Mancha, and some believe this is the best in the world, but saffron from India and Iran is also very good.


6) What are the health benefits of saffron? What is the use of saffron?

Medical Uses of Saffron: Saffron is traditionally prescribed for digestive and urinary tract disorders, coughs, whooping cough (pertussis), asthma and to loosen phlegm (as an expectorant).

The active components in saffron also have many therapeutic applications in many traditional medicines as antiseptic, antidepressant, antioxidant, and anti-convulsant

This dried spice is an excellent source of minerals like copper, potassium, calcium, manganese, iron, selenium, zinc and magnesium.


5) Is Saffron good for your eyesight?

Saffron for Macular Degeneration: Super Spice for Eye Health. There is a lot of buzz around saffron and its ability to support optimal eye health. The benefits of saffron for the eyes are the result of high concentrations of natural carotenoids that can help protect the lens and the retina of aging eyes.


4) Why saffron is so expensive?

Saffron is one of the most precious spices in the world, retailing for more than $500 an ounce. It is so expensive because it is an extremely labor-intensive crop

Harvesting saffron is a demanding, painstaking process. The harvest is in the fall, and the flowers are picked early in the morning, to avoid the heat of the sun. Then the stigmas are removed by hand, traditionally by all the women, young and old, of the town. Still attached to the style, the stigmas are then dried, often still over charcoal or in the sun, the traditional methods.


3) Is saffron worth more than gold?

It is the priciest and sought after spice in the world, commonly known as red gold. At some point it cost $65 per gram for the highest quality crop. Saffron can cost even more than gold.


2) What is the substitute for saffron threads? What can be used in place of saffron? 

Saffron has a very unique flavor and aroma that's tough to replicate. Some would even argue that there is no substitute for this spice. 

Some people may opt for using a smaller amount of turmeric, which can come close to mimicking saffron in color, but it's not a direct substitute in terms of taste.

Turmeric (Curcuma longa), also known as Indian saffron, is an honest substitute for saffron, but it is a member of the ginger family. 

Use turmeric sparingly as a saffron substitute since its acrid flavor can easily overwhelm the food. Turmeric is also used to stretch powdered saffron by unscrupulous retailers.


1) What is saffron side effects?

Saffron is POSSIBLY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth as a medicine for up to 6 weeks. 

Some possible side effects include dry mouth, anxiety, dizziness, drowsiness, nausea, change in appetite, and headache. Allergic reactions can occur in some people. 

Taking large amounts (one pound) of saffron by mouth is POSSIBLY UNSAFE.



REFERENCES:


M Kafi (Editor), A. Koocheki (Editor), M.H. Rashed (Editor). 2006. Saffron (Crocus sativus): Production and Processing, 1st Edition. CRC Press. ISBN-10: 157808427X

Moshe Negbi (Editor). 1999. Saffron: Crocus sativus L. (Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Industrial Profiles), 1st Edition. CRC Press. ISBN-10: 9057023946

Padma Lakshmi. 2016. The Encyclopedia of Spices and Herbs: An Essential Guide to the Flavors of the World. Ecco. ISBN-13: 978-0062375230

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